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January 13, 2011

ひこにゃん騒動

ひこにゃんは07年に開催された彦根築城400年祭のキャラクターです。市の実行委員会が公募し、この作品が選ばれました。市がその著作権を買い取って、商標登録しました。
原作者は同年11月、考案した3ポーズの図柄以外のグッズが出回っているとして彦根簡裁に市相手に調停を申し立て、12月、①市は「ひこにゃん」の商標権や著作権を持つが、「座る」「跳ねる」「刀を持つ」の3ポーズに限り、市が業者に使用を許可する。②原作者は、3図柄以外のイラストを使った創作する。ことで調停が成立しました。ところがその後、原作者が考案した「ひこねのよいにゃんこ」という類似グッズが出回り、市は、「ひこねのよいにゃんこ」について、昨年6月、グッズの販売差し止めを求める仮処分を大阪地裁に申請しました。仮処分で市は、「にゃんこ」の使用を絵本以外に容認していない、「市の権利を違法に侵害する」と主張しました。
 年末、市の申請は却下され、逆に、「調停では市が立体グッズ(ぬいぐるみ)の使用を第三者に許可しないことで合意している」と、市の調停違反を指摘しました。
 市長は1月8日会見し、却下された販売差し止めの仮処分について今月5日に大阪高裁に即時抗告したと報告。「地裁の判断には不服で、本訴も含めさらなる法的措置を考えている」、「商標権は市にあり、今後使用を認めた業者や市民の名簿を男性に年1回送って報告する」ことになったと説明。「調停は悪質な商品を排除するために交わした。立体グッズの使用許可を制限するものではないので、続けていく」ともいいます。
たくさんの在庫を抱えている業者は、市の許可を貰ってぬいぐるみやストラップを作ったのに売ることもできず困っています。市の要綱(20年1月)は「立体物でその表現が本件商標の立体物と認められないとき」は商標使用を許可しない、としています。調停には、「立体物への使用も認める」とは書いてありません。市が業者の無料での商品化を認めたことが紛争を大きくしたようです。原作者は3ポーズに限って著作権を売ったのでしょうか。そうだとすると、3ポーズ以外、原作者は自由に販売できます。著作者は人格権があり、未公表の著作物を公衆に提供できます。著作物の原作に名前を表示できます。著作物の同一性を保持し、意に反して変更、切除されない権利を有します。一方、財産権としての著作権を持ちます。複製・上演演奏・上映・公衆送信と伝達・口述・展示・頒布・譲渡・貸与・翻訳できる権利です。人格権と切り離して処分できます。私達が自分の研究論文に他人の著作物を引用することは「公正な慣行」として許されています(著作権法32条)。学校教育等に使用する場合もです。市は、著作権のどこまでを譲り受けたのか、理解が足りなかったのではないか、と言う疑問があります。3ポーズのイラストだけであれば、市が違反しています。ですが、調停の内容がはっきりしません。3ポーズに限るのはいいとして、市に立体物製作を認めたのか、著作者の人格権に基づく「ひこねのよいにゃんこ」等の新作がなぜ原作者の調停違反になるのか、3ポーズ以外の図柄に反対する理由は何か。市は業者に広範囲なグッズ製作を認めてしまったために、引っ込みがつかなくなっているのではないでしょうか。
 サザエさん。東京地判昭51.5.26は「キャラクター」を、「漫画の登場人物自体の役割、容ぼう、姿態など恒久的なものとして与えられた表現」ととらえて、頭部画と同一又は類似のものは、漫画の特定の齣の中に見い出して対比するまでもなく、キャラクターを「利用」するものだから、結局、原告の著作権を侵害すると認定しました。
この判示からすると、原著作物である漫画「サザエさん」の諸場面の中から家族3人のキャラクターの外的表現形式である人物絵を特定できなくても、各キャラクターの内的表現形式(イメージ)は何人にも理解できるから、キャラクター自体の無断利用が認定されるならば著作権の侵害に当たると考えたことになります。
 「船乗りポパイ」のキャラクターが最初に世界に登場したのは、1929年1月17日付 New York Evening Journal という新聞の5連一組の連載漫画“THE THIMBLE THEATER”の中でした。同紙はニューヨークでの発行と同時にカナダでも発売され、カナダでの漫画の発行は同時にイギリスにおける著作権を取得しました。作者は、エリジー・クライスラー・シーガー。この漫画のかたち(feature)は、工業的手段により量産することにされ、特許デザイン法によってデザインとして登録されることができる立体モデルのかたち(form)に、著作権者の許諾を得て複製(reproduce)されました。
類似の立体モデルのかたちが、無許諾で製造、輸入、販売されましたが、このようなモデルに著作権の効力は及ぶのか。英国では著作権者側が勝訴したそうです。
原告は「船乗りポパイ Popeye the Sailor」として知られている漫画のキャラクターを描いた多数の図画(drawings)の著作権者。被告はポパイの絵を形取ったブローチと人形を製造、輸入、販売した会社。原告は、すでに第三者に対して、ポパイの像(figure)をブローチ、石膏又は粘土製の人形、機械玩具に、それぞれ50個以上を生産する意図で複製する許諾を与えていました。しかし、このデザインは、まだ登録はされていませんでした。保護を求められた侵害物は図画(drawings)についてであり、依拠する法律は1911年著作権法でしたどで、原告は1929年1月17日から1937年1月16日までに発表された何千という漫画の中から、55連の漫画を選び、もしこの図画の中から著作権侵害を証明することができる図画がなければ、侵害は成立しないことに同意しました。5人の貴族院裁判官の意見は分かれ、最終的に一致したのは、多くの連載漫画の中から「ポパイ」の キャラクターを特定できる図画を見い出すことが困難であっても、いずれも実質的に同一性のあるキャラクターであることを認識できるものであれば、漫画シリーズの中の最初に登場したキャラクターをもって著作物と認定し、それに著作権の発生を認めることができる。そうであれば、キャラクター自体に著作物性を認め、他人による複製又は翻案の行為をキャラクターの著作権侵害と認定するといえる。(牛木理一さんの説明)
 日本でも、ポパイ商標事件がありました。(最判平2.2.7.20、平9.7.17)
第1の判決は言います。アメリカで創作され有名になったポパイ漫画を日本で商標登録しても、ただ乗りであり、国際信義に反する。商標は無効である。有効としてもその範囲は出願したとおりの構成と完全に同一の場合のみ効力を有する。本件商標は右人物像の著名性を無償で「利用」しているものに外ならず、客観的に公正な競業秩序を維持することが商標法の法目的の一つとなっていることに照らすと、「ポパイ」の漫画の著作権者の許諾を得て乙標章を付した商品を販売している者に本件商標権の侵害を主張するのは、客観的に公正な競業秩序を乱すものとして、権利濫用となる。
第2の判決は、漫画の名称、容貌、役割に特徴を持つ主人公は著作物に当たらない。連載漫画の最初の保護期間が満了すれば、長く続いている漫画でも著作権を主張できない。こっちは、ネクタイに表示されたポパイです。連載漫画の登場人物が漫画を離れてキャラクターを持つことはない。キャラクターを認めるには、どの回の漫画かを特定しなければならない。
調停で認められたひこにゃんは、特定の静止画像ですから、ポパイ判決を当てはめることはできません。
市の言い分は、傍目には分が悪く映ります。

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